Java has been a robust programming language since its first release, but with new technologies coming in the market and new programming languages becoming more feasible, it seems to be losing its popularity. One such programming language is Python. Here, we will discuss the features of Java and Python and also draw a comparison between them.

What is Java?

Java is an object-oriented, general purpose programming language (though it is not entirely object-oriented as it contains primitive types). Java codes are platform-independent, meaning java codes can run on any platform which is supporting Java. There is no need for re-compilation of code. Java has become one of the most used languages for client-server applications. Java code are converted to bytecode which runs on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) irrespective of the computer architecture.

Java was initially developed by James Gosling. He developed it at Sun Microsystems which got later acquired by Oracle. Java was first released in 1995. The latest versions in use are java 11 and Java 12.

Following are the features of Java:

  • It is an object-oriented programming language which makes writing code easy.
  • Memory allocation takes place at run-time that is why a java program can be compiled even without the main function.
  • It is platform independent, which is one of the most significant features of Java. The Java codes are not compiled directly, they are first converted to a bytecode which can be run on any platform which has JVM.
  • Java is an interpreted language which means that the Java code compiles and runs simultaneously.
  • Java is widely distributed due to its platform independent nature.

What is Python?

Python is an interpreted object-oriented programming language which was released in 1991. It was developed by Python Software Foundation and designed by Guido van Rossum. It is dynamically typed i.e. you need not declare the type of the variable before initializing it. Python also comes up with a variety of libraries which are very trendy for machine learning and data science.

Python serves as a scripting language. Frameworks like Django, pyramid, etc. help in the design and maintenance of several applications. Libraries such as NumPy, SciPy allow Python to be used in scientific computing. Libraries like TensorFlow help you to make machine learning projects.

Features of Python

Python has gained an edge over any other programming language in recent times due to the following functionality it provides which make a handy choice for developers-

  • Python is easy to type language. It has got easy syntax and requires a little knowledge of OOP to learn it. Also, it is dynamically typed therefore, you need not define the type of the variables.
  • One of the most striking features of Python is that it is free and open-source.
  • It is a high-level language, i.e., it is human readable and human understandable.
  • It is object-oriented language and follows the object-oriented paradigm making its program to be written easily and increases the reusability of the code.
  • It is interpreted language. It is compiled and executed simultaneously line by line and throws an error as soon as it encounters one.

Python and Java are both programming languages, each of which has its advantages. The most significant difference between the two is how each uses variables. Python variables are dynamically typed whereas Java variables are statically typed.

In Python, type checking is deferred until runtime. There’s no need to declare a variable name and type prior to using the variable in an assignment statement. Also, a Python variable name assigned to one type can be reassigned to an object of a different type. Python container objects, like lists and dictionaries, can contain objects of any type. Type of objects retrieved from the container objects are remembered so typecasting is unnecessary.

Java variables are type checked during compile time, unlike Python. A Java variable name and its type need to be declared before using the variable in an assignment statement. If an object is assigned to a variable that is not of the same type, then a type exception will occur. In addition to that, Java container objects can only accommodate generic type object. The type of object retrieved from the container is unremembered, so typecasting is necessary.

Another significant difference between Python and Java is syntax simplicity. Python is easier to use.

Java is also more vulnerable to small coding errors that are easy to make and harder to locate. For instance, in Python, the semicolon is optional. In Java, the semicolon is required. A missed semicolon causes an error. In contrast, Python uses indentation to define blocks which improves code readability. Java uses the curly brace, {}. A missed/misplaced curly brace will cause a syntax or semantic error.

Both Python and Java have their own set of advantages and disadvantages. Python might be better than Java for one purpose and Java might be better than Python for another purpose. Programming in Python saves time in typing and troubleshooting compile-time errors. On the other hand, the absence of compile-time error checking lets several errors stay undetected in the code.

Java and Python

Parameter Java Python
Compilation Java is a compiled language. JVM is the core thing used for the same. Python is an interpreted language which means code is scrutinized line by line.
Static/Dynamic Java is a static-typed programming language. Python is a dynamic-typed programming language.
String Operation The scope of string operation in Java is very limited. The scope of string operation in Python is very widespread.
Learning process Java is fairly complicated and it can some time to understand and master the programming language. Python is fairly simple as it is easy to understand and hence recommended for beginners.
Multiple inheritances Java can implement multiple inheritances partially through the usage of interfaces. Python offers single and multiple inheritances. It is simple to implement this concept easily.
Braces/Indentation Java uses braces to highlight the start/end of any function or class. Python does not use braces but a proper indentation needs to be followed for the code.
Speed Java is slower than Python. Python is comparatively faster than Java. But in general, it is very slow as compared to other languages like C and C#, etc.
Portability Any device capable of running a JVM (Java Virtual Machine) is capable of running a Java Code. Python is comparatively less portable. It needs an interpreter on the local machine to execute the code.
Readability Java needs 10 lines of code from a file to read. Python needs only 2 lines of code to read from a file.
Architecture JVM runs codes and converts bytecode into machine-readable language. Python translates into machine-independent byte code.
Backend Framework Blade and Spring Flask and Django
ML Resources MOA, DeepLearning4j, and Mallet Pytorch and Tensorflow
Game Development Engines JMonkeyEngines Panda3d
Companies using the technology Netflix, Instagram, and Spotify Google, Dropbox, and Uber
Best feature Widely used and documentation is available easily. Easily written and rapid development can be done.
Best Usage GUI apps and web app services. Scientific and numeric computing especially ML
Database Support Stable connectivity is offered by Java. Weak connectivity is offered by Python.
Code example Class Article {
public static void main (String args[]) {
System.out.println(“This is the best article on Java vs Python”);
Print in Python:
print “This is the article on Java vs Python”

From the above discussion, we can conclude that Java Vs Python is its own advantages of both languages. In contrast, it’s really up to you to choose the particular language for your project.

Where Python is simple and concise, Java is quick and more portable. While Python code is dynamically coded, Java is static-coded. Python is perfect, but if we say Python is the future and is the emerging language then we have to agree that Java exists, API uses most Java.

Java and Python are both powerful in their own fields. Both Java and Python languages are related to accessibility, so companies, departments, and developers are the best when deciding whether to keep the mind open.