Learn SQL and MongoDB at ISM UNIV for 100% Placement Assurance !!

MySQL and MongoDB are the two most popular databases used for the enterprise application. Although both databases are free and open-source, they also have a lot of differences. In this section, we are going to compare the differences between MySQL and MongoDB database systems based on the various parameters.

Introduction of MySQL

MYSQL is a popular and widely used DBMS system. The name is taken from the girl name My, who is the daughter of the co-founder Michael Widenius

SQL stands for “structured query language.” Developed in 1995

Benefits of MySQL

  • MySQL is enterprise-grade and powerful across platforms and networks. It is a leader in the space and continues to create and release comparable database options, such as an upgraded blend of NoSQL DBM capabilities.
  • MySQL is a mature relational database system, offering a familiar database environment for experienced IT professionals.


Introduction of MongoDB

MongoDB is a document-oriented NoSQL database used for high-volume data storage. MongoDB is a database that came to light around the mid-2000s. It comes under the category of a NoSQL database.

This kind of DBMS uses dynamic schemas which means that you can create records without first defining the structure, such as the fields or the types and their values.

MongoDB allows you to change the structure of records, which we call documents by adding new fields or deleting existing ones.

Features of MongoDB

Here, are the important features of MongoDB:

  • Each database contains collections which in turn, contain documents.
  • Each document can be different with a varying number of fields. The size and content of each document can be different from each other.
  • The document structure of MongoDB is according to how developers construct their classes and objects in their respective programming languages.

MongoDB is a well-established, non-relational database system offering improved flexibility and horizontal scalability, but at the cost of some safety features of relational databases, such as referential integrity.

We now know what MongoDB and MySQL are and we have seen how they are related. Let’s see how much they differ from each other.

Basis MongoDB MySQL
Data Structure Data is stored and represented in JSON(JavaScript Object Notation) like documents. Every record is stored as a table-cell structure with rows and column
Schema MongoDB stores data in collections with no enforced schema. MySQL requires a schema definition for the tables in the databases.
Language MongoDB uses the MongoDB Query Language (MQL), designed for easy use by developers. As the name suggests MySQL uses SQL, which is a structured query language.
User Friendliness MongoDB is an attractive option to developers because of its easy-to-use and understanding of data storage philosophy. MySQL is a bit complex compared to MongoDB because of the schema of tables, foreign keys, normalization, etc.
Scalability MongoDB databases can be scaled both vertically and horizontally ( horizontal scaling also known as Scaling out means adding additional nodes or machines to your infrastructure to match new demands whereas vertical scaling is adding more power to your existing machine for example upgrading CPU and RAM ). MySQL Database can be scaled vertically ( Scaling vertically means adding more power to your existing machine for example upgrading CPU and RAM).
Foreign key MongoDB MongoDB does not support the usage of Foreign keys. MySQL supports the usage of foreign keys ( foreign keys are used to link one table to another table).
Supported languages MongoDB supports languages like C and C++. MySQL supports languages like C, C++, and JavaScript.
Performance MongoDB is optimized for write performance( means the writing speed performance of MongoDB database is far greater than MySQL database). MySQL is optimized for high-performance joins across multiple tables replication replication
Replication In MongoDB, it uses sharing and replication ( sharing allows partitioning of data across multiple servers using the shared key and The technique of synchronizing (organize) data across many servers to offer redundancy is known as replication). MySQL supports master-slave replication and master-master replication ( replication feature allows a server -the master to send all changes to another server – the slave).
Flexibility MongoDB documents’ schema-less nature makes it simple to build and upgrade applications over time, without the need for difficult and costly schema migration processes like you would with a relational database. MySQL database is less flexible in comparison to MongoDB because of its schema design.
Cyber Attacks and security In MongoDB, No Schema definition is required so lesser risk of attacks due to its design and MongoDB is more secure in comparison to MySQL because of its schema-less design. In MySQL Risks of SQL injection attacks are there due to its schema design so MySQL is less secure in comparison to MongoDB.
JOIN Operations MongoDB does not Support JOIN operations. MySQL supports JOIN operation.
Community Support Right now MongoDB has around 200k repositories over GitHub with around 1 million commits which shows it will be quite difficult to resolve an issue in MongoDB if you are stuck somewhere in comparison to MySQL because of less community support and documentation ). MySQL has more than 200k repositories over GitHub and around 7 million commits so MySQL community support is far greater than MongoDB.
Handling Unstructured Data MongoDB is an ideal choice if you have unstructured and/or structured data with the potential for rapid growth MySQL can not be used to handle unstructured data.


By now, we have a good understanding of MongoDB and MySQL. In simpler words, MongoDB is a document-Oriented NoSQL database that is used for handling Unstructured data whereas MySQL is an Open source RDBMS (Relational database management system ) that uses SQL (Structured query language) to operate and retrieve data in a database and follows a specific row-table based schema.

Now, the question is what to choose between MongoDB and MySQL? The answer to it is simple: it all depends on various factors such as which type of data you are working on (whether it is structured or unstructured), your needs, and system requirement.

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